In pictures: Syria in the grip of conflict

A Syrian woman, fleeing violence in the restive Bustan al-Qasr neighbourhood, reacts as she stands with her children in Aleppo's Fardos neighbourhood on December 13, 2016, after regime troops retook the area from rebel fighters.  Syrian rebels withdrew from six more neighbourhoods in their one-time bastion of east Aleppo in the face of advancing government troops, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. / AFP PHOTO / STRINGER

A Syrian woman, fleeing violence in the restive Bustan al-Qasr neighbourhood, reacts as she stands with her children in Aleppo’s Fardos neighbourhood on December 13, 2016, after regime troops retook the area from rebel fighters.
Syrian rebels withdrew from six more neighbourhoods in their one-time bastion of east Aleppo in the face of advancing government troops, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. / AFP PHOTO / STRINGER

s the four-month siege of Syria’s eastern Aleppo neared its end, some survivors trudged in the rain past dead bodies to the government-held west or the few districts still in rebel hands. Others stayed in their homes and awaited the Syrian army’s arrival. For all of them, fear of arrest, conscription or summary execution had added to the daily terror of bombardment.

Restoring full control over Aleppo, Syria’s most populous city before the war, has been seen as critical to the fortunes of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in a multi-sided war now in its sixth year.

The fall of Aleppo would deal rebels their worst blow since the beginning of Syria’s conflict in 2011, and leave the government in control of the country’s five major cities.

The Syrian Observatory has said that around 130,000 people have fled rebel areas, moving mostly to government-held territory. The ruinous war in Syria has killed over 300,000 people and displaced half the population.

The government assault on Aleppo has killed at least 413 civilians since mid-November, according to the Observatory. Another 139 civilians have been killed in rebel fire on the west of the city in the same period, it said.

Diplomatic efforts to bring an end to the conflict have repeatedly failed but Russia last week said talks were underway with US officials on securing a ceasefire in Aleppo and the withdrawal of all rebel forces from the city.

Insurgents who had held the eastern part of the city since the early days of the war effectively agreed to surrender what remained of their besieged enclave and evacuate after a fierce government assault. The Russian Defence Ministry was cited as saying on Thursday that the evacuation of 5,000 rebels and their families from Aleppo has begun on Thursday.

Syrians emerge from a dust cloud following a reported airstrike on Kafr Batna, in the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta area, on the outskirts of the capital Damascus, on September 30, 2016. ─ AFP

Free Syrian Army soldiers throws a petrol bomb against Syrian Army positions in Saif Al Dawle district in Aleppo, Syria, Wednesday, Oct. 3, 2012. (AP Photo /Manu Brabo, File)

Free Syrian Army soldiers throws a petrol bomb against Syrian Army positions in Saif Al Dawle district in Aleppo, Syria, Wednesday, Oct. 3, 2012. (AP Photo /Manu Brabo, File)

TOPSHOT - Syrian children run for cover following a reported airstrike on Kafr Batna, in the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta area, on the outskirts of the capital Damascus, on September 30, 2016. Air raids on several rebel-held towns in the Eastern Ghouta region killed at least 17 people including eight children, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor said. / AFP PHOTO / AMER ALMOHIBANY

TOPSHOT – Syrian children run for cover following a reported airstrike on Kafr Batna, in the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta area, on the outskirts of the capital Damascus, on September 30, 2016.
Air raids on several rebel-held towns in the Eastern Ghouta region killed at least 17 people including eight children, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor said. / AFP PHOTO / AMER ALMOHIBANY

Smoke rises following a Syrian government air strike on rebel positions, in eastern Aleppo, Syria, Monday, Dec. 5, 2016.  (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar, File)

Smoke rises following a Syrian government air strike on rebel positions, in eastern Aleppo, Syria, Monday, Dec. 5, 2016. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar, File)

TOPSHOT - A Syrian man carrying a child emerges from a dust cloud following a reported airstrike on Kafr Batna, in the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta area, on the outskirts of the capital Damascus, on September 30, 2016. Air raids on several rebel-held towns in the Eastern Ghouta region killed at least 17 people including eight children, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor said. / AFP PHOTO / AMER ALMOHIBANY

TOPSHOT – A Syrian man carrying a child emerges from a dust cloud following a reported airstrike on Kafr Batna, in the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta area, on the outskirts of the capital Damascus, on September 30, 2016.
Air raids on several rebel-held towns in the Eastern Ghouta region killed at least 17 people including eight children, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor said. / AFP PHOTO / AMER ALMOHIBANY

The body of a Syrian Army soldier lies on the ground after heavy clashes with government forces at a military academy besieged by the rebels in Tal Sheer, Syria, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012. (AP Photo/Manu Brabo, File)

The body of a Syrian Army soldier lies on the ground after heavy clashes with government forces at a military academy besieged by the rebels in Tal Sheer, Syria, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2012. (AP Photo/Manu Brabo, File)

Syrian residents stand in a graveyard in Aleppo's Al-Kalasseh neighbourhood that was newly captured by pro-governments forces in the eastern part of the war torn city on December 13, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / George OURFALIAN

Syrian residents stand in a graveyard in Aleppo’s Al-Kalasseh neighbourhood that was newly captured by pro-governments forces in the eastern part of the war torn city on December 13, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / George OURFALIAN

A man carries a child with an IV drip as he flees deeper into the remaining rebel-held areas of Aleppo, Syria December 12, 2016. REUTERS/Abdalrhman Ismail     TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY

A man carries a child with an IV drip as he flees deeper into the remaining rebel-held areas of Aleppo, Syria December 12, 2016. REUTERS/Abdalrhman Ismail TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY

Syrian residents, fleeing violence in the restive Bustan al-Qasr neighbourhood, arrive in Aleppo's Fardos neighbourhood on December 13, 2016, after regime troops retook the area from rebel fighters.  Syrian rebels withdrew from six more neighbourhoods in their one-time bastion of east Aleppo in the face of advancing government troops, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. / AFP PHOTO / STRINGER

Syrian residents, fleeing violence in the restive Bustan al-Qasr neighbourhood, arrive in Aleppo’s Fardos neighbourhood on December 13, 2016, after regime troops retook the area from rebel fighters.
Syrian rebels withdrew from six more neighbourhoods in their one-time bastion of east Aleppo in the face of advancing government troops, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. / AFP PHOTO / STRINGER

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